Category: Indian constitution

पैरोल क्या होती है? | what is Pairol in law language

पैरोल क्या होती है? | what is Pairol in law language

Parole is the early release of a prisoner who agrees to abide by certain conditions, originating from the French word parole. The term became associated during the Middle Ages with the release of prisoners who gave their word. 

पैरोल क्या होती है?

पैरोल का अर्थ है, किसी अपराधी द्वारा खुद के द्वारा किये गए किसी गुनाह की सजा का जेल में एक बड़ा भाग काटने के बाद, अच्छे आचरण की वजह उसे जेल से अस्थायी रूप से लिए मुक्त किया जाना। यह समय एक निश्चित अवधि के लिए होता है, जिसे कुछ समय के लिए कोर्ट में एक एप्लीकेशन दे कर इसकी अवधि को आगे और लम्बा भी किया जा सकता है, पैरोल किसी भी तरह के अपराधी को मिल सकती है, अगर कोर्ट में केस चल रहा है, तो सिर्फ वह कोर्ट में अपील करने पर ऊपर की कोर्ट ही पैरोल दे सकती है, लेकिन अगर अभियुकत को सजा मिल चुकि है, तो प्रशासन व जेल अध्यछ भी पेरोल दे सकते हैं। पैरोल मिलन जितना कठिन है, उससे कहीं ज्यादा कठिन है, पैरोल और इसके नियम व शर्तों का पालन करना।

 

पैरोल कितने प्रकार की होती है?

भारत की न्याय व्यवस्था में मुख्य रूप से दो प्रकार की पैरोल का वर्णन किया गया है

  1. कस्टडी पैरोल
  2. रेगुलर पैरोल

कस्टडी पैरोल क्या होती है?

कस्टडी पैरोल वह होती है, जिसके अंतर्गत दोषी अथवा अपराधी को किसी विशेष स्थिति में जेल से बाहर लाया जाता है, और उस समय वह पुलिस कस्टडी में ही रहता है। पुलिस का सुरक्षा घेरा उसके साथ होता है, जिससे कि वह फरार ना हो सकेI इस प्रकार की पैरोल अपराधी को तब दी जाती है, जब किसी ख़ास रिश्तेदार की उसके परिवार में मौत हो जाती है, या फिर उसके परिवार में किसी विशेष व्यक्ति की शादी होती है। उसके परिवार में यदि कोई बीमार होता है, या फिर कोई भी ऐसी परिस्थिति जो कि अपराधी के लिए बहुत आवश्यक है, तो उस अपराधी को पैरोल पर कुछ घंटों के लिए बाहर लाया जाता हैI कस्टडी पैरोल अधिकतम 6 घंटों के लिए होती हैI कस्टडी पैरोल के लिए जेल सुपरिंटेंडेंट के पास आवेदन किया जा सकता है, और यदि कस्टडी पैरोल को जेल सुपरिंटेंडेंट के द्वारा रिजेक्ट कर दिया जाता है, तो कोर्ट के माध्यम से पैरोल के आदेश प्राप्त किये जा सकते हैंI

 

रेगुलर पैरोल क्या होती है?

रेगुलर पैरोल की स्थिति में वह अपराधी जिसे सजा सुनाई जा चुकी होती है, तो वह रेगुलर पैरोल के लिए आवेदन कर सकता है I इसके लिए आवश्यक है, कि वह अपराधी कम से कम एक साल की सजा जेल में काट चुका हो, और जेल में उस अपराधी का व्यव्हार अच्छा हो, पहले यदि वह जमानत पर रिहा हो चुका है, और उसने रिहा होने पर कोई भी अन्य अपराध ना किया हो I रेगुलर पैरोल एक साल में कम से कम एक महीने के लिए दी जा सकती है I पैरोल कुछ विशेष परिस्थितियों में दी जा सकती है, जैसे कि यदि उस अपराधी के परिवार में कोई बीमार हो, किसी विशेष व्यक्ति का परिवार में विवाह हो या फिर किसी परिस्थिति में मकान की मरम्मत करानी बहुत जरुरी हो, यदि परिवार में किसी व्यक्ति की मृत्यु हो गयी हो, यदि पत्नी गर्भवती हो और डिलीवरी होनी हो और घर में कोई और व्यक्ति देख रेख के लिए ना हो और इसके अलावा किसी और प्रकार का ऐसा काम हो जिसे पूरा किया जाना अपराधी के लिए बहुत जरुरी हो।
पैरोल मिलने के लिए कानूनी नियम शर्तें

  1. पूर्ण और असाध्य अंधापन
  2. यदि कोई कैदी जेल में गंभीर रूप से बीमार है, और जेल से बाहर आने पर ही उसकी सेहत में सुधार संभव हो सकता है
  3. यही फेफड़े के गंभीर क्षयरोग से पीड़ित रोगी को भी पैरोल प्रदान की जाती है, तो यह रोग कैदी को उसके द्वारा किए अपराध को आगे कर पाने के लिए अक्षम बना देता है, इस रोग से पीड़ित वह कैदी उस तरह का अपराध दोबारा नहीं कर सकता, जिसके लिए उसे सजा मिली है
  4. यदि कैदी मानसिक रूप से अस्थिर है, और उसे अस्पताल में इलाज की बहुत जरूरत है

किन स्तिथियों में पैरोल के आवेदन को अस्वीकार कर दिया जा सकता है?

पैरोल पर किसी अपराधी को उस परिस्थिति में नहीं छोड़ा जा सकता है, जब यदि अपराधी का व्यव्हार जेल में संतोषजनक ना हो। यदि अपराधी पहले कभी पैरोल पर बाहर आया हो और उसने पैरोल की शर्तों का पालन ना किया होI यदि अपराधी ने बलात्कार के बाद हत्या का अपराध किया हो या फिर देश द्रोह जैसे मामले में उसे सजा हुई हो या फिर अपराधी को किसी प्रकार की आंतकवादी गतिविधि, जैसे अपराध के लिए सजा हुई हो तो पैरोल नहीं दी जाती है। और इसके अलावा यदि अन्य किसी किस्म के देश की सुरक्षा से जुड़े हुए किसी मामले में सजा सुनाई गयी है तो अपराधी को पैरोल पर नहीं छोड़ा जा सकता है।

 

पैरोल के मामले में एक वकील कैसे आपकी मदद कर सकता है?

पहले और सबसे महत्वपूर्ण कदमों में से एक जो आपको शुरू करना चाहिए, वह एक अच्छा वकील को नियुक्त करना है, क्योंकि वह कानूनी प्रक्रियाओं की नीट – ग्रिट्टी और पैरोल के मामले में शामिल आवश्यक आवश्यकताओं से अवगत होता है। एक वकील के पास दस्तावेजों को संभालने और ड्राफ्ट करने के लिए आवश्यक कानूनी ज्ञान और अनुभव होता है। वह आपको मार्गदर्शन करने में सक्षम होंगे और आपकी विशेष परिस्थिति तथ्य, परिस्थितियाँ, व्यावसायिक जोखिम, और इसमें शामिल होने की आवश्यकता के अनुसार आपके लिए पैरोल का मसौदा तैयार करेंगे। एक वकील को अच्छी क़ानूनी तकनीकों के बारे में पता होता है। एक वकील को काम पर रखने से आपको एक से अधिक तरीकों से मदद मिलेगी।

 

377  of the Indian constitution

                                         “377  of the Indian constitution”

The constitution of India is the highest Authority of INDIA. An adopted in 26th November 1949 and came into force in 26th January 1950. Constitution lays down structure, procedure, principles, fundamental rights, duties of the citizen along with the duties of the Central Government, state governments. The constitution of India is the lengthiest constitution in the world. The constitution of India declared as a SOVEREIGN, DEMOCRATIC and  REPUBLIC. While drafting the Indian constitution , the framers keeping in their mind the needs and condition of the people. The framers borrowed the features from different sources. They borrowed the features from the previously acts like 1861 the indian council act, 1858 the government of India act, 1892 the indian council act ,Indian council act 1935, the indian  independence act 1947. The Indian constitution borrowed from GERMANY constitution, U.S. constitution , AUSTRALIA constitution , IRELAND constitution etc. The feature borrowed like parliamentary form of government, fundamental rights,Federal form of government, Judicial Review, single citizenship,an ideas of liberty, equality and federnity etc and incorporated in indian constitution.

      In the Indian constitution, there are six fundamental rights, such as right to equality,right to freedom, right against exploitation, right to life, cultural and educational right, right to constitutional remedies and  right to privacy.

                          Out of the many clauses mentioned in the indian constitution that don’t have much relevance to the indian penal code. But one of  such clause 377 section under the Indian penal code 1860, “unnatural offence”, whoever voluntarily has carnal intercourse against the order of nature with man, woman or animal shall be punished with imprisonment for life, or with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to ten  years, shall also be liable to fine”.

Which was introduced in 1860 at the time of british government by the “LORD MACAULAY”. 

In indian penal code HOMOSEXUALITY is means,like physically,emotional,

psychological , attraction to persons of the same sex.Therefore, particularly target the “ LGBTQ or  GLBT COMMUNITY” means  (Lesbian,Gay, Bisexual,Transgender and Queer).It may be used for refer to anyone who is NON-HETEROSEXUAL.

First we need to understand what is heterosexual ? Heterosexual means, a person attracted to people of the opposite sex. Boys who like girl, girls/women who like men are called heterosexual. So the LGBTQ community memebers faces the problems like violation of basic human right, harassment and violence. LGBTQ  member’s   

    For the first time, the challenge “NAZ FOUNDATION”, which is non-governmental organisation.Which is work with particularly MSM( male having  sex with male).So this NAZ FOUNDATION filed petition to the Delhi  High court and stated that because of the section 377 criminalised homosexulity, increases the level of  diseases such as  HIV and AIDS cases, particularly in case of “MSM”. So required to deletion of section 377, for the treatment of HIV and AIDS patience. This people can’t come out and they can claim their sexuality  because of these section. We are not able to track that people and not able to provide proper medical treatment.

    In  2009, the landmark judgement , the court said that 377 is an unconstitutional. Why it’s unconstitutional because its infringe the Fundamental Rights which are enjoyed by all the citizens of india. After the verdict of court, immediately came into existence , “ECL” ( Election commission of India) , stated that whiling the paper application or voting in election not required only male or female option but also  provide to the transgenders to registrate as “OTHERS”. The declare as the “OTHERS”.So the transgender community has the right to vote .The judgement first  taken by Delhi High Court then election commission of india. In 2013 “Suresh kumar koushal and ors. v/s Naz foundation (India),in this cases again criminalised the 377 section of IPC.  and In april 2014, the supreme court of India declares and recognises the  transgender as a “THIRD GENDER”. Recognition of transgender as “other” is not for social issues  or a  medical issue but for “HUMAN RIGHTS ISSUE”. This people is also a part of REPUBLIC AND DEMOCRATIC of country of india and must provide the same opportunity and grow up their self as like female and male.So the transgender is fixed by the supreme court. There were one delima that , still prosecuted  and imprisonment, If having consensual sex . In the significances of verdict 2016,  the dominant view “Gender identity”. The transgender still faces the reaction of the society and the society focused on the what is right and wrong, beautiful and ugly, color, gesture, expression, black, white etc. Supreme court also realised that this gender is coming from backward class. So need an affirmative action. 

So provide this people need an opportunity in Reservation in jobs. So supreme court said to take an affirmative policy action regarding this people. Supreme court recognised that the individual gender is the most important aspect of the fundamental of the indian constitution. court  focussed on the individual dignity and freedom and self-determination .Given the right to choose the gender and that is mention under the textbook but not given right to choose to whom you love.If choose by the transgender community to whom , they love then that is penalised by the court and in the eyes of law.

  Therefor in 2015, the “SHASHI THAROOR”, tried to introduced the bill “PMB”( private member bill). But not allowed to under the table because intolerance in the society. But in February 2016 , the supreme court refers the matter to constitutional bench . Many people that this would be the landmark judgement over the section 377 in the independent india. Many people think that should be decriminalised . 

    When we r talking about the other countries status regarding the “HOMOSEXUALITY IS LEGAL”, then 124 countries are recognised the homosxuality is legal in their country. At the same time there are 72 countries think that homosexuslity still to be criminalise the same- sex relationship. In some countries, if anybody saw that , that person did the sex with  same gender then directly give isonment not death penalty. in some countries if the guy having intercourse with same gender would give  death sentence , in some countries , got the information that person is homisexual the give the imprisonment  then can allow to marry like in America, Sweden , Caneda, European countries, Australia, norway, etc in that countries people can marry with the same gender. When we are talking about the pakistan countries , there are the direct imprisonment for homosexualit. In some countries there are very strict rule regarding homosexuality.

  Lets see the India’s condition till the 2016 there were, people were against the homosexuality because that against the culture and Religion . Let me tell you that in the “RAMAYANA”, there is a mentioned in that , the member of the transgender community. Rama itself grant the blessing with birth and wedding to that transgender. There are so many people and experts against the 377, said it’s unconstitutional. the “kapil sibal”, said that a person’s sexuality is his/her most precious and important private right against the fundamental rights like article 14,

 talking about the right to equality to all the citizens of india. Then why discriminate  with the “LGBTQ” community  article 15 is talking about,  No discrimination on the basis of five grounds caste, place of birth, color, sex, etc. There is no point on the sex discrimination. Everybody has the right to do, according to constitution , the most important article that is article 21 “ Right to life”, which is also  talking about the right privacy and it’s  a fundamental right. No one can infringe the fundamental  right of any citizens of the country.

                         There are case of Aligarh Muslim University , because of the professor was the Gay  in  the university, and having consexual, adult, gay sex with partner. The professor was the victimised and thrown out of the university. Ultimately he committed suicide. This 377 is not only infringe the people homosexuality but also infringe  the privacy of the people. Some people said against the nature and some agree with it. When we are talks about it or see century ago, in  the christianity society ,there were sex without purpose and producing child against the nature. At that time sex for fun , enjoyment is against the order of the nature, criminalised and illegal.

    When we says that its a secular, socialist, democratic, Republic and independent  country then  not believe on the christianity society . then people talks about the UNNATURAL ? then supreme court turn the Delhi high court judgement and Decriminalised 377.There are three argument put forward by the supreme court, said that this indian penal code of the section 377 it has been  amended 30 times since its enacted,all this amendment not talking the warding of the section. Supreme court remove the 377 by the parliament because parliament has the power to delete or repealed the section . There were disputes regarding the 377, then first argument was the ‘onus on the parliament not courts’, because struck down the ‘NJAC,’second “LGBTQ COMMUNITY’ is the miniscule minority, said that there are no laws for the miniscule minority, third argument of the supreme court is the MISUSE ? that’s the parliament problem not by the court.Supreme court is the guider of the constitution , constitution start with ‘WE THE PEOPLE’, indians is the sovereign,  socialist , democratic and Republic . So secular the citizens and give just and justice , provide the opportunity to the citizens. 377 is the violation of LGBTQ COMMUNITY. 

State has no Right and should not given the right to enter into the bedroom of two consulting adults. Criminalising consensual sexual activity of an adult  is not  comes under the government.

Now India join the homosexuality is legal by the Supreme court so decriminalised the gay sex . 125 countries legalised the homosexuality. The supreme court declares the decriminalised consensual intercourse between the  persons of the same sex in the landmark  case of “NAVJET SINGH v/s UNION OF INDIA” in 2018. Supreme court observed that “orientation of sexual inherent” and its biological phenomena .

                                 So finally “LGBT” community of india  get the chance to do sex with same 

gender. One important thing is that under the 377, it was punishable intercourse with man, women or Animals that is against the nature but its decriminalised now . important thing said by the supreme court is if any one intercourse with animal ,shall be punishable . Intercourse with animal is not decriminalised its criminalise now also and punishable. Supreme court protected the animal from humans.

   The justice khanwilkar chief justice has raised Individual’s Identity. An individual’s is the filament of life. The destruction of individual’s identity would tantamount to crushing the identity,which infringe the privacy of an individual.  The Sexual Orientation of each Individual in the society must be protected on an even platform, for right to privacy and protection of sexual orientation lies at the core of  the fundamental right guaranteed by  the Article 14 (right to equality),15( prohibited  discrimination of the basis of any religion, race,caste,sex,place of birth) and Article (no person shall be deprived of his life or his personal liberty except the procedure established by law.)  of the indian constitution.

 

  • “ A CERTAIN UNIQUENESS” 
  • U.K INSTANCE:- The discrimination of homosexuality came about by the parliament and In India political parties distanced themselves from  their causes.
  • Movement of  get 377 of the indian penal code  struck down has not been so male dominate here but so far the greater presence of  women .
  • In 2013 coalition of Religion group:- the hindu, muslim and christianity came together to reinstate of section 377 and then they succeeded. At that indian shown that india is secular country
  • “Merits of this section 377”
  • Equality for the LGBT community.
  • No violation of any fundamental right like article 14,15 ,19 and 21 of the indian constitution.
  • Now it’s became constitutional right.
  • LGBT members  can live in the society with the normal member.
  • They  will also get the opportunities in school,colleges and in jobs .
  • LGBT members can also claim for their rights and for violation of their consensual homosexuality .
  • “Demerits of this section 377”  
  • If the section is allowed then sexual transmitted diseases like AIDS ,HIV etc , would further spread and harm the people.
  • It would lead to big health hazard.
  • Decreases the moral values in the society.
  • Gay people misuse other people by doing marriage .

 

                                                      CONCLUSION 

 

I would like conclude that , as we know that our  indian constitution is Sovereign,  Secular,  socialist , democratic , Republic country. As we are living in democratic country ,means “ Of  the people, for the people and by the people”. An obvious government has to  think for the people and for  their  development of the society as well as for country . It’s a duty  and responsibility of the state, to do welfare for the people. Our framers of constitution borrowed features from the other countries for the people. Because it’s lengthiest constitution so we had 395 articles but now 448 articles in the constitution. There are many clauses in the indian penal code 1860, out of them , not have much relevance to the constitution  but the section 377 is relevant to the constitution. Section 377 it was an ‘unnatural offences”  before the supreme court judgement but its a decriminalised  for the “LGBTQ”.Before 2001 the condition of member LGBT was worse but in 2001 for the first “NAZ Foundation’’ (non-governmental Organisation) 

filed a pet court filed petition to the Delhi  High court and stated that because of the section 377 criminalised homosexulity ,increases the diseases of HIV and AIDS cases ,particularly in case of “MSM”( male  having sex with male). poration of the section of 377 struck down in 2009.But in 2014 the supreme court of india declares  and recognise the transgender as a “third gender”, recognition of third gender as “other” it’s not for social issues or medical issues but for  “Humain  issues”.So this  people also are the  part of Republic and  Democratic of country of india and must provide same opportunity and grow up their self like female and male fixed by supreme court of india . So still there is one dilema that still prosecuted and imprisonment if having consensual sex. 

          In 2016 the dominant  “gender identity” the transgender still facing the reaction of the society on what is right and wrong such as beautiful, white, ugly, gesture, expression etc. The supreme court also realised   like that  this gender is coming from backward classes so need a affirmative action  so supreme court said to take and affirmative policy action regarding this people.

Supreme court focused on individual dignity and freedom and self determination. Therefore In 2015 “Shashi tharoor” try to introduce the bill “PMB” (Private member bill ).This bill was not allowed to under the table because intolerance in the society . But in feb 2016 supreme court refers this  matters the constitutional bench.Many people thinking there is landmarks judgement in 377 in independent india, Many people thinking  criminalised. Because in many countries the homosexuality is legal,124 countries are recognized the homosexuality is legal in their countries.

At the same time there are 72 countries think that homosexuality still to crimillised the same sex relationship some countries got the information that person is homosexual they give imprisonment not death penalty and some countries if the guy having intercourse with same gender than can allow to marry them  like in america, sweden, canada, norway and others european countries.When we are talking about pakistan,there are the direct imprisonment for homosexuality and in some countires there are strict rule regarding homsoexuality. 

       India’s condition till 2016 there were people agianst the homosexulity because its against nature, culture, and region.

There are a case of aligarh muslim university because of professor was gay in the university and having consensual , adult,gay sex with partner.The professor was the victimise and thrown out the university ultimate committed suicide. 

 In 2018  the landmark case of  “NAVJET SINGH VS UNION OF INDIA “

The supreme court observed that “Orientation of sectional inherent”And its biological phenomena.Supreme court decriminalized consensual intercourse between person of the same sex and read down the section 377 of the indian penal code,thus providing a huge boost to the LGBTQ community of inda . However 72 countries and territories worldwide still continue to criminalised same sex relationship.Important thing said by supreme court in the definition of 377 under ipc if any one intercourse with animals shall be punishable Its not be decriminalised still now supreme court protected the animals from humans beings. The justice khanwilkar chief justice has raised individual identity and individuals filament of a life the distraction of individuals identities would tantamount to crushing  the identity which infringe so the privacy offence of individual. There  are the merits and demerits of 377 section under the ipc so its mentioned above.there should not be any violation of fundamental right . one more thing that in 26th september 2018, held that Right to privacy is a Fundamental Right under an article 14(Right to Equality), article 19(Right to Freedom) and 21(Right to life with dignity) of indian constitution.So its a  personal matter of the person to whom they love or not and intrinsic part of human right and it is mentioned under the UDHR (Universal Declaration of Human Rights).

                                                       “SUGGESTION”

  I want to suggest that , one has to understand that the fight cannot be achieved only through legal amendments. It should be an accompanied by awareness campaigns to educate: parents, teachers and friends. To adopt a health and supportive attitude towards homosexuals.

 One thing  i want to suggest that Transgender are doing some wrong stuff like clapping and irrelevant action, to gain attention toward them and represent their community.so this kind of action making wrong impact on society,they should prohibited this thing,and there is no need to show they are different from human beings.They should never feel uncomfortable with different gender .They are also human beings.I Want to suggest that prohibited the LGBTQ community,because why the government differentiate that they are different if they are the citizen of india and  fundamental right are for them and they all have the right and duty  and which are given to the other genders/citizen. By the indian constitution.One point i want to suggest to the legislature /government .

If the children are not straight by birth when we come to know about it,so we/parent/society should not differentiate with that child and LGBTQ community should not interfare ,and for maintaining it  government should make a law. Indian society should understand that they are not different and don’t see them like they are different from other human being. To prohibited that culture and Religion that differentiate the human being. All are equal here , God made everyone equal and there should not be any differentiation in human being .

 

                                                               

 

    

     

 

  

 

     

   

     

 

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